Please visit our new website and blog!


Thanks to our donors, collaborators, talented team, and stakeholders in Tanzania, HALI has been able to develop several different projects and activities focusing on research, health, outreach, education, service delivery, and development.  All of these activities are hard to keep track of on this blog, so we developed a new website to better highlight our activities, news, and events.  Please check out our new site, and our new blog at

We will maintain this WordPress site as the HALI archives, our original home and project foundation.

Thanks to all of our readers and we look forward to seeing you at, Facebook, and Twitter!


David and the HALI team

Veterinary-Medical-Community partnerships: One health collaborations for zoonotic diseases.

HALI Researchers and a village health worker interviewing a local family

How does the HALI team collect information and samples for TB/BTB in the field?
The HALI project is working together with local hospitals, health clinics, local government officials, and pastoralists to determine the transmission ecology and epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis in the four divisions namely Pawaga, Idodi, Kalenga and Ismani within Iringa rural district .In this area the project is working with seven (7) health facilities.

How do these health facilities work with the HALI project?

In each facility the project trained at least one clinician, nurse, laboratory technician and two village health workers (VHWs) about the project protocols, patient eligibility criteria, Good Clinical Practice (GCP) issues and consent / assent forms. The trained staff helps us to enroll TB patients at the rural clinics. Once an eligible patient is enrolled at the health facility, the VHW and people from the HALI project team up to trace him/her to the household level. There we screen the rest of the family members using questionnaires targeting the four symptoms of TB: night sweats, frequent coughing, progressive loss of weight, and swollen lymph nodes around the

A case household where the HALI team sampled the environment

neck region or inguinal area. If researchers find a contact has TB symptoms (active patient), they advise him/her to go to the nearby health facility to seek medical attention. Using the case household, we randomly select a nearby  control household at the time of the visit

What else does the HALI field team do at the household?

Livestock testing via the TB skin test, household environmental sampling at the sleeping quarters, toilet facilities, food containers and leftovers, interviewing the family members, and identifying other risk factors.

Goodluck using a vernier caliper to record skin thickness to test a bull for TB .

Why all of these samples?

 HALI project is looking at the role of each player in the epidemiology and transmission dynamics of M. bovis and M. tuberculosis between humans, their animals, and shared environments in a well-defined rural population of Tanzania. The project is also interested in understanding the microbiology of pathogen survival in soil, feces and water and the role of this reservoir in infectious disease transmission.

On the road

Field research is full of unanticipated opportunities and challenges. Weather, long travel distances, and even large living roadblocks frequently change our plans. HALI researchers studying TB transmission in rural communities were in the field until late Friday evening, so news from Goodluck will be posted early next week. While you’re waiting, we hope you enjoy a close look at local travel conditions!

New Voices on the HALI blog!

TB Project Field Coordinator, Goodluck Paul, gets a closer look at a Maasai milk storage gourd.

Have you been wondering what’s happening with the HALI team? Are all of the staff members on a Zanzibar beach vacation? Has research at the human-animal-environment interface been forgotten?

Of course not! Though the beach does sound appealing, we’ve been busy working within and beyond the Ruaha ecosystem. HALI team members have been exploring primate capture and sampling techniques, collecting environmental and livestock specimens to search for TB, and learning how to assess the nutrition of women and children in pastoralist communities. Our posts have been delayed for a bit, but the HALI blog is back in action! We’ve taken the time to reconsider our approach to sharing stories, thoughts, and research updates. We have a wonderful and expanding team of Tanzanian researchers engaged in exciting One Health investigations, and from this point forward, you’ll be hearing their diverse perspectives. The fun starts tomorrow when we’ll be welcoming Dr. Goodluck Paul to the blog stage! Stay tuned for his insights on zoonotic TB and collaborations in the field.

While you’re waiting for tomorrow’s post, stop by our facebook page to see the latest photos from the field and learn the Swahili word of the week!

Picture of the week…

Is this a human-animal interface? (Photo by Liz. Vanwormer)

What is a human-animal interface?

An interface is the common boundary, or the place where two things touch or meet.  The human-animal interface is the place where humans and animals come into contact.  This interface can be in your home where you interact with your pets, in your fields where you work with livestock, or in the forest where you may encounter wildlife.  The intensity of interaction at this interface can vary greatly.  If you live in a city, you may have very little intensity of interaction at the human-animal interface, whereas a hunter’s interaction can be intense.

Why is this important?  Approximately 75% of emerging infectious diseases are of animal origin, so both the type of interaction and the intensity of that interaction has implications for disease transmission and human-animal health.

In the Ruaha ecosystem, pastoralist communities interact intimately with their herds, and in many places live close to conservation areas where they (and their herds) are exposed to wild animals.  HALI is working with pastoralist communities in Ruaha to better understand the context of the pastoralist human-animal interface to improve both human and animal health.